Økonomiske aspekter ved sprøytemisbrukeres forbruk av rusmidler. En analyse av intervjuer foretatt 1993-2004
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OriginalversjonSIRUS-rapport. 176 p. Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning, 2005
Datamaterialet i denne rapporten er unikt i norsk og internasjonalsammenheng ved at vi over et langt tidsrom har gjennomført mangeintervjuer (n=3829) med tunge rusmiddelmisbrukere om forbruk,finansiering og priser påillegale rusmidler. Antall intervjuede personer erlavere enn antall intervju da enkelte misbrukere trolig er blitt intervjuet merenn en gang i løpet av årene undersøkelsen har pågått. Rekrutteringen harforegått ved den sentrale sprøyteutdelingen i Oslo, dvs. til forskjell frastudier basert på fengsels- eller behandlingspopulasjoner, er misbrukerneher rekruttert fra et ikke-kontrollert miljø. Formålet har blant annet vært åbeskrive gruppen av aktive sprøytemisbrukere og deres rusmiddelforbruk,samt analysere hvordan økonomiskeog andre faktorer påvirker detteforbruket. Vi presenterer data om hvilke, hvordan og hvor mye rusmidlersprøytemisbrukerne bruker, og analyserer hvordan dette endrer seg medendringer i priser og pengebeløp dedisponerer. Vi beskriver hvordan deskaffer seg inntekt og hvor mye pengerde får fra ulike inntektskilder. Deøkonomiske variablenes innvirkning påforbruket er sentrale, men ogsåandre faktorers betydning for rusmiddelbruken er tatt med.Sentrale funnene i studien kan deles i fire grupper og vi vil spesielt trekkefrahe data in this report are unique in both a Norwegian and international context in that we have carried out a large number of interviews (n=3829) over an extended period with heavy drug users on issues such as consumption, funding and street prices of illegal drugs. r long study. In contrast to studies whose interviewees are recruited from prisons and/or treatment facilities, we recruited ours from a noncontrolled group in the vicinity of Oslo needle exchange service because we wanted, among other things, to profile active injecting users and their consumption habits and analyse the impact of economic and other factorson consumption. We detail here the drugs, intake methods and quantities and longitudinal changes with regard to prices and means available to fund the habit. We describe how respondents obtain money and the relative significance of the different methods. In addition to the impact of economic variables on drug use we also investigate the significance of other factors as well. We have divided the main findings of the study into four areas, and wouldlike to highlight the following points in particular: About the sample population• The average age of the interviewees rose by almost 5 years over the course of the study, from 29.1 in 1993 to 33.8 by 2004. Average age was higher among self-reporting mainly amphetamine users (34.0) than among mainly heroin users (31.7).• The average age of first-time injectors in the post-1995 period is about 10 years higher than the age of first-time injectors in the pre-1980 period (post-1995 debut age 25.1 / pre-1980 debut age 15.8).• About 50 per cent started injecting on a regular basis within a year of their first injection; almost 80 per cent were injecting regularly within three years of the first injection.• Increasing numbers start injecting heroin without previouslyinjecting amphetamine.• More than 90 per cent of out interviewees were born and raised in Norway. Among the remainder, the parents of most were from Africa.• A relatively large number (35.5 per cent) reported unsatisfactory longer term accommodation arrangements (hostel/no permanent address). More female interviewees lived in their own home (rented or owned), while more male interviewees lived with their parents or had no permanent address.• 65 per cent reported overdosing incidents of sufficient severity to require assistance to regain consciousness. The average number of overdose incidents among those reporting such incidents was 7.• A higher number of female than male interviewees reported nonfatal overdose incidents; women under the age of 25 appear to be particularly prone to risk behaviour. The data showed that young women with experience of overdosing averaged 3.5 incidents within the past twelve months, while men in the same age-group reported 0.7 incidents.• Average mortality over the first two years of a sample interviewed originally in 1997 (n=172), was about 5 per cent. Drug consumption• 84 per cent of the sample injected mainly heroin, 12 per cent amphetamine, 3 per cent both, and 1 per cent other substances• The percentage of mainly amphetamine injectors grew during the study from an average of 10 per cent 1993–99 to 17 per cent 2000–04.• We found wide individual variation within the periods, and a sharp rise over time in the average amounts taken per injection of heroin.• Average monthly heroin consumption has more than doubled during the study, from about 8 to about 20 grams; average amphetamine use rose in the same period from 17 to 20 grams.